Navier Stokes Fluid Dynamics
Lecture, Dr. Lawlor
Calculus: Div, Grad, Curl
For reference, you often see these
vector calculus symbols in PDEs:
or "del A"
|vec3(∂A / ∂x,
∂A / ∂y,
∂A / ∂z)
|The gradient vector points
in the direction of greatest change.
|∇ . A
or "div A"
|∂A.x / ∂x +
∂A.y / ∂y +
∂A.z / ∂z
|Positive divergence indicates areas
where a vector field is leaving.
Negative indicates convergence, where field is arriving.
|∇ . ∇ A or ∇2A or ∆A
"div grad A"
|∂2A / ∂x2 +
∂2A / ∂y2 +
∂2A / ∂z2
up in diffusion,
and other energy minimization problems.
|∇ x A
or "rot A"
|vec3(∂A.z / ∂y - ∂A.y / ∂z,
∂A.x / ∂z - ∂A.z
∂A.y / ∂x - ∂A.x
|The curl operator
measures local rotation.
The magnitude of the curl indicates rotational speed.
The direction of the curl indicates the rotational axis.
For example, Navier-Stokes fluid
The variables here are easy enough:
As we saw above, "∇ p" means a
- v is the fluid velocity. It's a vector, and hence
written in bold.
- ρ, the Greek letter rho, is the
fluid density: mass/volume. It's there because this
equation is actually "m * A = F" (rearranged F=mA).
- p is the fluid pressure.
- T is a stress tensor, used for viscous fluids. If
viscosity is zero, you can ignore this term.
- f are any other forces acting on the fluid, like gravity or
wind. Calling these "body forces" makes them sound more
mysterious and intimidating.
∇ p = del p = vec3(∂p / dx, ∂p / dy, ∂p / ∂z)
This converts a scalar pressure, into a
vector pointing in the direction of greatest change. The
magnitude of the vector corresponds to the pressure difference.
We've seen this "pressure derivatives
affect velocity" business in our little wave simulation program,
where we're updating the current velocity:
vel.x+=dt*(L.z-R.z); /* height difference -> velocity */
Written more mathematically, we're
really doing this computation.
dv / dt = vec2(L.b-R.b,B.b-T.b)
Recall that from the Taylor series, we
can approximate the pressure derivative with a centered difference dp/dx
= (R.b-L.b)/grid_size. Say both the grid size and fluid
density ρ both equal one. This means our
simple wave simulation code is actually computing
/ dt = vec2(L.b-R.b,B.b-T.b) = -vec2(∂p/∂x,∂p/∂y) = - del p = - ∇
Hey, that's exactly the leftmost terms
on both sides in Navier-Stokes!
We now move on to "v · ∇ v", the term of
the Navier-Stokes equations that represents moving
fluid--advection, which we covered last class.
Overall, the bottom line on
Navier-Stokes is actually pretty simple:
density * ( acceleration + advection) =
pressure induced forces + viscosity induced forces + other forces